Carrier particles

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Introduction to Particles

By particles we mean any short words that aren't nouns, adjectives, or verbs. We have chosen the term particles to save the learner of Carrier having to study a lot of Latin grammatical terms like prepositions, postpositions, adposition, etc. We shall make up simple descriptive terms to distinguish between different types of particles (e.g. Particles to Describe Location). This includes English prepositions such as "inside" which corresponds to the Carrier postposition "whetsih". Therefore “inside the hay barn” is “tl'o bakoo whetsih” in Carrier (hay barn = tl'o bakoo).

Summary of Particles

Particles have been grouped together logically on this page. To find a particular word, try Ctrl F (find), or use the alphabetical tables farther down.

This webpage is just a summary. For lots more examples and detailed explanations, see the articles on each individual particle.

Particles to identify things or people

We include question words and demonstrative adjectives here.

ndan (who)

Carrier: ndan 'int'oh ?
Literal translation: who he-is ?
Polished translation: Who is he?

ndai (which)

Carrier: ndai buka'ninzun ?
Literal translation: which you-like ?
Polished translation: Which one would you like?

ndi (this/these)

(used only for objects)

Carrier: ndi 'atsoo bulhoombilh 'int'oh
Literal translation: this grandmother her-fishnet it-is
Polished translation: This is grandmother’s fishnet.

ndunah (this/these)

(used only for people)

Carrier: ndunah chilh dube 'ut'en
Literal translation: this young-man very-much he-works
Polished translation: This young man works very much.

nyugi (that)

Carrier: nyugi sus mai nuldelh
Literal translation: that bear berries he-is-eating
Polished translation: That bear is eating berries.

nyugun (that)

Carrier: nyugun dune 'a nube
Literal translation: that man fast he-swims
Polished translation: That man swims fast.

en (he/she/it/they)

(Some Carrier sentences require this particle to mark the subject. This particle refers to a person.)

Carrier: George 'en 'ilhuz lh'a'utni
Literal translation: George he truth he-is-telling
Polished translation: George is telling the truth.

'i (it)

(This particle refers to an object or objects.)

Carrier: George butl'ool 'i huyene'ut'en
Literal translation: George his-rope it they-are-using
Polished translation: They are using George’s rope.

daneltsuk (how many/much)

Carrier: 'uma talook daneltsuk sulooh ?
Literal translation: mother salmon how-many she-caught ?
Polished translation: How many salmon did mother catch?

dant'i (what/what kind of)

Carrier: dant'i lhook oolhjas ?
Literal translation: what-kind-of fish you-are-fishing ?
Polished translation: What kind of fish are you fishing?

di (what)

Carrier: di dini ?
Literal translation: what you-say?
Polished translation: What are you saying?

ba (for him/her/it)

(In English this is a preposition, in Carrier a postposition.)

Carrier: khits'oh whuzk'uz ba unzoo
Literal translation: winter-cap cold-weather for-it is-good
Polished translation: A winter cap is good for cold weather.

suba (for me)

(no example available)

nyuba (for you)

Carrier: kesgwut nyuba nu'nekai
Literal translation: moccassins for-you I-have-sewn
Polished translation: I have sewn moccassins for you.

neba (for us)

Carrier: lhalhgus dube neba detzi
Literal translation: cross very for-us it-is-precious
Polished translation: The cross is very precious for us.

huba (for them)

Carrier: dune 'ilhhunah zeh huba 'udechos
Literal translation: man one only for-them he-was-rowing
Polished translation: Only one man was rowing for them.

Particles to describe relationships

(Prepositions in English, postpositions in Carrier, adpositions in general)

be (with)

Carrier: tsetsilh be
Literal translation: axe with
Polished translation: with an axe

'bulh (with)

Carrier: duneyaz bu'uba bulh 'uhut'en
Literal translation: boy his-father with they-work
Polished translation: A boy works with his father.

Particles to describe time

(Prepositions in English, postpositions in Carrier, adpositions in general)

'et (in)

Carrier: Takahsdel-bunun 'et 'eldzi uncha
Literal translation: January in moon big
Polished translation: In January the moon is big.

t'eh (in)

Carrier: hulhgha t'eh te'tesdlelh
Literal translation: evening in I-am-going-to-set-the-net
Polished translation: I am going to set the net in the evening.

t'eh (at)

Carrier: hulhgha t'eh ts'untedih
Literal translation: night at we-shall-dance
Polished translation: We shall dance at night.

Particles to describe location

(Prepositions in English, postpositions in Carrier, adpositions in general)

bet (in/inside of)

Carrier: beha'uzok bet
Literal translation: drawer in
Polished translation: in the drawer
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